Conundrum 11 – Periglacial Stripes…………………………. Book Extract (The Great Stonehenge Hoax)
When was the wheel invented?
Deep chalk cuts lines found under the surface of the Avenue, which lead from the Stonehenge monument site to ‘Stonehenge Bottom’ a valley in the NE of the landscape, had always created speculation, especially today as the ‘experts’ came up with a ludicrous argument that had caught the mainstream archaeologists imagination when they suggested that these were Periglacial Stripes from the last ice age, and this was the reason for our ancestors built Stonehenge at this place. These lines are just a foot or so below the topsoil on a known roadway that dated back older than the B-road that passed the stones that have now been removed.
This is probably the most provocative subject in history – who invented the wheel and when? What should be remembered when considering this as a key ‘landmark’ invention in the progress of humanity is that the wheel is useless without a road. The current belief is that the wheel was invented in Mesopotamia in about the 4th millennium BCE. This, however, is archaeological gobbledygook as the concept of moving items around on top of a round surface, like a tree trunk, goes back to the Neanderthals, I would imagine, if not before.
Archaeologists and historians would argue that the concept of the ‘axle’ connected to two free-running discs constitutes an actual wheel technology. However, in 2012 a Museum in Turkey found a ‘toy car’ made of stone with wheels found in a north Kurdish town of Qoser (Kızıltepe), pushing back the accepted date of wheel technology to the 6th millennium (5500BCE). The interesting aspect of this discovery was that it was a toy and not the real thing. This may be because the wood would not last this long, and even the toy car’s axel of timber had to be replaced by a modern stick by the museum as it had rotted. But it should be kept in mind that this may represent an accurate record of a wagon or cart with wheels, but without a flat surface, it would be useless.
We have seen these kinds of ‘revolutionary inventions’ many times in history and the two most famous ‘useless’ inventions that spring to my mind are the ‘Steam Engine’, and the ‘Windmill’ – both inventions were available to the Romans in 2000 years ago, the original steam engine was a toy that spun around when a candle was placed under the brass ball with pipe outlets. Diagrams of this unique invention are shown in ‘Hero of Alexandria’s epic work on pneumatics which offers many other unused (or currently undiscovered) hydraulic devices. The windmill, again another mechanism well known to the Romans, was also made as a toy for children – for who needs to construct a full live size version, at a considerable cost which can only be used when the wind blows – in comparison to a treadmill that can work 24/7 when you have slaves?
As an example of this limited efficiency of the wheel, the American Indians also had knowledge and access to ‘real wheels’ before they were placed on their reservations, but they continued their nomadic lifestyle with horses that pulled sleighs as the distribution of weight on unmade roads made it less likely for the sleigh to get stuck and bogged down – unlike the wagon trains that could only be used seasonally as the roads were unsuitable for winter weather. Moreover, wagons suited the lifestyle of the white pioneers as not everyone could or wanted to get to their destination quickly, unlike the indigenous populations that survived on the movement of herds.
Where and when did our ancestors invent the wheel or cart, and for what purpose?
To answer this question, we need to find some kind of ‘road’ or a natural clearing that could be used as a road. If we could find such an area, we may be able to find the tell-tale signs of these wheeled carts and if we are fortunate, the cart itself.
When Doggerland had finally sunk into the North Sea, The Megalithic Builders built Stonehenge, and around 4300BCE, they changed the site to incorporate a new mooring place from the original car park in the North West (which pointed towards the Preseli Mountains where they obtained their sacred healing Bluestones), to a new mooring place in the North-East towards the Solstice midsummer sunrise and their old homeland Atlantis/Doggerland.
The New shoreline was about a kilometre from the Stonehenge site, so they built what we call ‘The Avenue’, a long straight road about 30 metres wide, too wide for a walkway (which we have seen in places like Avebury are much narrower) but large enough to get two carts going either way with ease. Sadly, for archaeologists, a long ‘road-like’ prehistoric trackway will not persuade them that it was constructed as a road for carts, even if it is concave in shape and has water drainage gullies on both sides – like a Roman road.
William Hawley in 1922, Atkinson in the 1950s and Mike Parker-Pearson in 2009 found what they believed to be periglacial stripes – they thought that these stripes are the product of rocks being dragged along the floor by ice glaciers or the constant freezing and thawing of the soil known as tundra.
Why am I mentioning such an essential natural feature seen throughout the world?
Well, the great surprise is that they are not natural. These features are only found on the Avenue and not outside the 30m width of the Avenue. Moreover, none are found in the excavated old car park some 50m away, or even inside the Stonehenge enclosure. If they were natural, they should be found either side of the Avenue or past the ‘Heel Stone’ – but mysteriously, they are not. Archaeologists would have you believe that this strange ‘narrow passage’ event happened naturally during the last ice age, which supposedly explains why they built Stonehenge where it is.
However, the most apparent error by these archaeologists in their assumptions is that we know that the Avenue was built AFTER the Phase I of the site construction (including the ditches) as the ends of the Avenue ditches do not line up and stop short of the Stonehenge Ditches – which would not be the case if periglacial stripes were there first?
Perhaps this strange event brought the stones to Stonehenge?
Well, could we not argue that it is possible the Bluestones of Phase I mentioned earlier were delivered via this route on a glacier? This is a nice theory, but sadly the glacier would be travelling the wrong way. We now know that the Bluestones came from Wales and the Preseli mountains, which are North West to the site (Solstice midsummer sunset), not the northeast, and the last ice sheet stopped at the Bristol Channel 200km away and travelled in a South East direction.
So, it is only in previous ice ages that an ice sheet could have reached Stonehenge, which was about 400,000 years ago, and could have come from the northeast. However, would this leave stripes only 30 metres wide? The other problem with these ‘natural features’ is the depth at which they were found and supposedly half a million years old, yet just under the surface.
If it’s not a glacier, what could have made these tracks?
Similar ruts have been found elsewhere in the world and particularly in Europe. However, the most famous tracks can still be seen today in Malta, which played a crucial role in another trade route of Humanity. Misrah Ghar il-Kbir (informally known as Clapham Junction) is a prehistoric site in Malta near the Dingli Cliffs. It is best known for its “cart ruts” – a complex network of tracks gouged in the rock. However, the age and purpose of the tracks are still a mystery in Maltese history.
In general, most archaeologists presume that the site developed about 2000 BCE after new settlers came over from Sicily to start the Bronze Age in Malta. It is reported that the “Clapham Junction” nickname was given by an Englishman, who later wrote that it reminded him of the busy railway station Clapham Junction in London. The tracks (known and signposted in Malta as Cart Ruts) can be found in several sites on Malta and on Gozo. Busewdien in St Paul’s Bay, Naxxar, San Gwann and Bidnija are good examples of cart tracks on Malta’s Island. Gozo’s best cart ruts are on the Ta’ Cenc plateau, Sannat. The Misraћ Gћar il-Kbir site near the Dingli Cliffs in the south of the island is probably the most impressive – they form a real “traffic jam” here. Also called cart ruts, they are up to 60 cm deep and have an average distance between them of 110 to 140 cm. Some cross while others form junctions. This creates the illusion of a great railway station switching yard.
Is this what William Hawley found originally in 1922?
He believed so and immediately called them ‘cart tracks’ as he lived in a time when they used horse-drawn carriages and evidence of cart tracks was commonplace and easily identified. The cart ruts in Malta are not the only reports of earlier wheel use for transportation. In Portugal, in a mountain called Vale d’egua, cart tracks have been found cut into the rock (which by its very nature is undatable) but are located at an altitude of 800m, and they appear ‘out of nowhere’, but it is possible to follow them quite a distance. We can solve this mystery quite simply as these carts would be used to move goods to and from boats, and at the time of these ruts, the groundwater level would, like we have found throughout Britain, be much higher than today – hence the height and apparent disappearance of the cart tracks.
Why build a road?
The second phase of Stonehenge (the Sarsen Stones) was much heavier than the Bluestones (twelve tonnes versus four tonnes), so the Bluestones could effortlessly be dragged or even carried by the Megalithic Builders as they were tall and heavy, weighing in at about 150kg, so as little as ten fit men would easily lift a stone weighing four tonnes on a ‘stretcher’ type stone carrier. In contrast, the larger Sarsens would need sledges or wheeled transportation. As we have seen previously, such technology has existed since the 6th Millennium BCE as ‘toy cars’ in the Black Sea ports, which were on the trading routes of Doggerland. Therefore, Stonehenge Avenue was Britain’s first ‘road’, and a wheeled cart was first used to move the immense Sarsen Stones from the boats moored at Stonehenge Bottom at the end of 4300BCE.
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